Introduction into Analytical Ultracentrifugation and Optics

Workshop Slides

  1. Sedimentation velocity - basic theory and understanding of what the various terms mean
    1. Sedimentation coefficient- balance of forces.
      1. Buoyancy
      2. Mass conservation and the Lamm equation
    2. Frictional coefficient, Stokes radius, Rs, and interpretations of Rs. Facts and fiction
    3. Non-interacting mixtures of components. Component boundaries.
    4. Interacting mixtures of components. Reaction boundaries
  2. Sedimentation equilibrium- basic theory
    1. Balance of fluxes, balance of energies
    2. Fundamentals of non-linear least-squares curve fitting
  3. Designing an experiment
    1. Choosing the setup
      1. Cells and centerpieces- which ones and for what purpose
      2. Underused cell types to consider
    2. Choosing the method
      1. Rotor speed choice for velocity
      2. Rotor speed choice for equilibrium
    3. Tips and tricks
      1. Cell maintenance
      2. Temperature equilibration
      3. Oil in the chamber and other natural disasters
  4. Instrumentation
    1. Accuracy versus precision
    2. Optical system types
      1. How they work
      2. Uses and limitations of each
      3. Example applications

Ultracentrifugation at High Concentrations

Workshop Slides

  1. Concentration scales
    1. Natural thermodynamic scale
    2. Natural hydrodynamic scale
    3. Problems that arise from these differences
  2. Thermodynamics of high concentration fluids
    1. Solute components versus species
    2. Dispersed phases versus components
    3. Four classes of systems considered:
      1. Single solute component dilute fluids
        1. Example: most samples analyzed now
      2. Single solute component concentrated fluids
        1. Example: drug formulations
        2. What may we learn from equilibrium AUC?
      3. Multi-component dilute fluids
        1. Examples: cell lysates
        2. What may we learn from equilibrium AUC?
      4. Multi-component concentrated fluids
        1. Examples: serum, urine, etc.
        2. What may we learn from equilibrium AUC?
    4. Analysis methods
      1. Where current methods leave off
      2. Possible future approaches
      3. Examples from the 4 classes of systems
  3. Hydrodynamics of high concentration fluids
    1. Nonequilibrium thermodynamic framework for analysis
      1. R-type versus non R-type frames of reference... a problem for AUC?
    2. We do not have the software to analyze these systems, yet:
      1. What would need to be done
      2. Sedanal's approach
    3. What do we see with velocity analysis for the 4-classes?

Instructor: Thomas Laue, University of New Hampshire, USA